What’s the difference between JPA and Hibernate?

I understand that JPA 2 is a specification and Hibernate is a tool for ORM. Also, I understand that Hibernate has more features than JPA 2. But from a practical point of view, what really is the difference?

I have experience using iBatis and now I’m trying to learn either Hibernate or JPA2. I picked up Pro JPA2 book and it keeps referring to “JPA provider”. For example:

If you think a feature should be standardized, you should speak up and request it from your JPA provider

This confuses me so I have a few questions:

  • Using JPA2 alone can I fetch data from DB by simply annotating my POJO’s
  • Is JPA2 supposed to be used with a “JPA Provider” e.g TopLink or Hibernate? If so, then what’s the benefit of using JPA2 + Hibernate as compared to JPA2 alone, or compared to Hibernate alone ?
  • Can you recommend a good practical JPA2 book. “Pro JPA2” seems more like a bible and reference on JPA2 (It doesn’t get into Queries until the later half of the book). Is there a book that takes a problem/solution approach to JPA2?

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